Congressman Ellison wanted to signal that Jefferson's involvement in the drafting of the declaration of Independence and US Constitution must have been influenced by his readings of the Koran. An excellent expose of the Jefferson' Koran is contained. With some comparative study of the legal cultures that were formed around the Koran and the Constitution, a few common themes start to emerge, and ultimately it turns out that there may be as many similarities as differences between the jurisprudence of Islam and that of the United States.
This is in fact the conclusion of law Professor. She contends that "What is striking about putting Islamic and American legal discourses side by side is that many presumptions inherent in the different interpretive methods translate across cultures quite easily, as do the corresponding attacks against those using an opposing method.
Sadly, these common denominators have been relegated thus far, largely because the greater Muslim and American legal communities have themselves been disengaged from fruitful debates.
It ought to be noted here that the American Muslim community is now sufficiently independent from other Muslim communities in that its religious institutions can issue rulings based on the specific needs of American Muslims. There is a body of fatwas issued by learned Imams or Councils regarding a multitude of issues affecting Americans Muslims such as condemnation of terrorism, voting in American elections, consumption and or sale of disallowed foods and drinks, interfaith marriage, the Islamic calendar for fasting, holidays, and as we reported recently, exchanging holiday greetings with non Muslims.
This growing independence of American Muslims is rarely pointed out, as pundits tend to lump this community in with decisions and actions by Muslims in other parts of the world. To no avail, I find myself often distancing myself from acts committed thousands of miles from our US border. Why are we often expected and punished as if we are our brothers' keepers? Legal or academic research on this topic is rare indeed, but this need not remain so for long. Often, the Judeo-Christian traditions are considered the doctrinal foundation of the US Constitution.
A more appropriate tradition, the Abrahamic Tradition, that incorporates the three monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, may offer clearer insights onto the moral compass of America. The fatwa mentioned, we hope, might face some warmer welcome once serious research has started.
Johnson reveal how over three years of study and fellowship, sixteen Muslim, Jewish, and Christian scholars sought to answer one question: "Do our three scriptures unite or divide us? This groundbreaking book, the outcome of an imaginative 3-year experiment by the Princeton Center of Theological Inquiry, shows scholars and thinkers of the Abrahamic traditions going deeper into the traditions and into their contemporary situation.
Those who are quick to dismiss Islam as unrelated to the Judeo-Christian tradition need to recognize that many People are attracted to Islam because of its beautiful simplicity and the spiritual wholeness that Islam encompasses. Also highly appealing is Islam's 'code of equality' amongst differing peoples, a truly unparalleled ideal when compared to any other faith.
Under Islam, all - black, white, red, and yellow-are at one in justice, freedom, and equality. For Islam, true excellence lies, not in the intellectual or manual attainments of people of differing gifts; but in the level of piety and fear of God. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Furthermore, God says in the Qur'an:. Islam stresses the point that all of the God fearing believers of this world are a part of a single brotherhood.
We show below the full text of the fatwa. Contrary to erroneous perceptions and Islamophobic propaganda of political extremists from various backgrounds, the true and authentic teachings of Islam promote the sanctity of human life, dignity of all humans, and respect of human, civil and political rights.
Islamic teachings uphold religious freedom and adherence to the same universal moral values which are accepted by the majority of people of all backgrounds and upon which the US Constitution was established and according to which the Bill of Rights was enunciated. The Qur'an speaks explicitly about the imperative of just and peaceful co-existence, and the rights of legitimate self-defense against aggression and oppression that pose threats to freedom and security, provided that, a strict code of behavior is adhered to, including the protection of innocent non-combatants.
The foregoing values and teachings can be amply documented from the two primary sources of Islamic jurisprudence — the Qur'an and authentic Hadith. These values are rooted, not in political correctness or pretense, but on the universally accepted supreme objectives of Islamic Shari'ah, which is to protect religious liberty, life, reason, family and property of all.
The Shari'ah, contrary to misrepresentations, is a comprehensive and broad guidance for all aspects of a Muslim's life — spiritual, moral, social and legal. Secular legal systems in Western democracies generally share the same supreme objectives, and are generally compatible with Islamic Shari'ah. Likewise, the core modern democratic systems are compatible with the Islamic principles of Shura — mutual consultation and co-determination of all social affairs at all levels and in all spheres, family, community, society, state and globally.
As a body of Islamic scholars, we the members of FCNA believe that it is false and misleading to suggest that there is a contradiction between being faithful Muslims committed to God Allah and being loyal American citizens. Islamic teachings require respect of the laws of the land where Muslims live as minorities, including the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, so long as there is no conflict with Muslims' obligation for obedience to God.
We believe further that as citizens of a free and democratic society, we have the same obligations and rights of all US citizens. We believe that right of dissent can only be exercised in a peaceful and lawful manner to advance the short and long term interests of our country.
The Fiqh Council of North America calls on all Muslim Americans and American citizens at large to engage in objective, peaceful and respectful dialogue at all levels and spheres of common social concerns. We call upon all Muslim Americans to be involved in solving pressing social problems, such as the challenge of poverty, discrimination, violence, health care and environmental protection. It is fully compatible with Islam for Muslims to integrate positively in the society of which they are equal citizens, without losing their identity as Muslims just as Jews and Christians do not lose their religious identity in doing the same.
This is known as the doctrine of tahref-lafzy, "the corruption of the text". So judge among them by what Allah has revealed" [Surah ]. Historically, Islamic scholars have agreed that the Qur'an gives "People of the Book" special status, allowing those who live in Muslim lands called dhimmi—protected people to practice their own religions and to own property. People of the Book were not subject to certain Islamic rules, such as the prohibitions on alcohol and pork. Under the Islamic state, they were exempt from the draft, but were required to pay a tax known as jizyah, part of which went to charity and part to finance churches and synagogues.
They were, however, exempt from the zakat required of Muslims. This agreement has in the past led to Islamic countries practicing religious toleration for Christians and Jews, although they were never accorded the full status enjoyed by Muslims. One part—often seen as the largest or at least currently the most vocal—focuses on the differences takes an exclusivistic and aggressive approach to the differences between Islam and the Judeo-Christian community. Like in other faiths, this can lead to parts of the Muslim community holding beliefs like the necessity of bringing them back to the "Straight Path" by persuasion, or even force, and then acting them out.
Another part—often with a lower-profile, if not currently an outright minority—of Muslims focus on the similiarities and believe that people of faith in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism all serve the same God, and cite verses such as the following:. They will feel no fear and will know no sorrow. Your Lord knows best who is misguided from His way.
The Two Religions of the Koran
And He knows best who are guided. You will find the people most affectionate to those who have faith are those who say, 'We are Christians. Our God and your God are one and we submit to Him. One verse of the Qur'an says "God forbids you not, with regards to those who fight you not for [your] faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them; for God loveth those who are just.
According to a hadith, Muhammad said to his people "The one who murders a dhimmi [non-Muslim under protection of the state] will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, even if its smell was forty years travelling distance" [Sahih Ahmed]. Based on the percentages published in the CIA factbook, Islam is the second largest religion in the world. It is a matter of great controversy whether this is due in large part to the higher birth rates in many Islamic countries, or whether a high conversion rate may also be a factor. The Muslim population today comprises over 1.
There are approximately 5 million Muslims in North America. The world population is growing at about 1. Birth rates in many Muslim countries have begun to decline, although more slowly than in other nations, which also may be a factor. There are a number of Islamic religious denominations, each of which has significant theological and legal differences from each other.
Islam Past and Present - The Atlantic
The major branches are Sunni and Shi'a, with Sufism often considered as an extension of either Sunni or Shi'a thought. All denominations, however, follow the five pillars of Islam and believe in the six pillars of faith mentioned earlier. It is broken into four similar schools of thought madhhabs which interpret specific pieces of Islamic practice. They are named after their founders Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanafi, and Hanbali. Each school of thought differs slightly on fiqh thoughts on how to practise Islam although all accept the fundamentals contained within the Holy Quran. Shi'a Islam comprises most of the Muslims that are not counted among the Sunni.
The Shi'a consist of one major school of thought known as the Jafaryia or the "Twelvers", and a few minor schools of thought, as the "Seveners" or the "Fivers" referring to the number of infallible leaders they recognise after the death of Muhammad. While some consider the Islamic mysticism called Sufism to constitute a separate branch, most Sufis can easily be considered Sunni or Shi'a.
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Sufism is the hardest to understand by non-practitioners because on first sight it seems that sufis are either of Shi'a or Sunni denomination, but it is true that some sects of Sufism can be categorised as both Sunni and Shi'a whilst others are not from either denomination. The distinction here is because the schools of thought madhhabs are regarding "legal" aspects of Islam, the "dos" and "don'ts", whereas Sufism deals more with perfecting the aspect of sincerity of faith, and fighting one's own ego.
Other people may call themselves Sufis who may be perceived as having left Islam or never followed Islam. There are also some very large groups or sects of Sufism that are not easily categorised as either Sunni or Shi'a, such as the Bektashi or those that can be categorised as both at the same time, like the Barelwi. Sufism is found more or less across the Islamic world, though bearing distinctive regional variations, from Senegal to Indonesia.
modernpsychtraining.com/cache/products/qec-the-best-cellphone.php This position was not generally accepted by mainstream Sunni scholarship, and al-Azhar itself distanced itself from this position. Muhammad also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies called sirah in Arabic , he was born c. His name is Arabic for "he who is highly praised". Pious Muslims consider that his work merely clarified and finalized the true religion, building on the work of other prophets of monotheism, and believe Islam to have existed before Muhammad.
Muhammad is said to have been a merchant who travelled widely. Early Muslim sources report that in , at about the age of 40, he experienced a vision. He described it to those close to him as a visit from the Angel Gabriel, who commanded him to memorize and recite the verses later collected as the Qur'an. He eventually expanded his mission, publicly preaching a strict monotheism and predicting a Day of Judgement for sinners and idol-worshippers — such as his tribesmen and neighbors in Mecca.
He did not completely reject Judaism and Christianity, two other monotheistic faiths known to the Arabs; he only claimed to complete and perfect their teachings. He soon acquired both a following and the hatred of his neighbors.
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In he was forced to flee Mecca and settle in Medina with his followers, where he established legal authority as leader of the first avowedly Muslim community. War between Mecca and Medina followed, in which Muhammad and his followers were eventually victorious. The military organization honed in this struggle was then set to conquering the other pagan tribes of Arabia. By the time of Mohammed's death, he had unified Arabia and launched a few expeditions to the north, towards Syria and Palestine. Later conquests, commercial contact between Muslims and non-Muslims, and missionary activity spread his faith over much of the globe.
The sources available to us for information about Muhammad are the Qur'an, the sira biographies, and the hadith collections. While the Qur'an is not a biography of Mohammed, it does provide some information about his life. Ibn Ishaq wrote his biography some to years after Muhammad's death. The third source, the hadith collections, like the Qur'an, are not a biography per se.